This overview of adoption gives the main requirements for the process. There may be other requirements depending an the facts of the case.
With one exception, in order for the adopted child to receive immigration beneﬁts from the adoption, the adoption must take place before the adopted child is sixteen years old. The exception to this rule, allows siblings up to 18 years old to receive immigration beneﬁts from the adoption if they have a sibling under 16 years old that is also adopted by the same family.
In addition to the age requirement, adoptions must meet many other requirements in order for them to be recognized for immigration purposes. These requirement diﬀer depending on whether the adopted child is an orphan or not, and on whether the adopted child is from a country that has signed or ratiﬁed the Hague Convention.
For a child that is not an orphan, the child must have been in the legal and physical custody of the adopting parent or parents for at least two years. The two-year requirement can be met after adoption, but must be met before the petition is ﬁled with USCIS. Legal custody must either be based on the adoption decree, or on a custody award by a court or other governmental body.
Orphans are not subject to the two-year requirement, but must be adopted abroad. The child is considered an orphan if the child’s parents have died, disappeared, or abandoned the child, or if the child has only one parent, that parent is incapable of providing proper care and has irrevocably released the child for adoption.